A Midwestern Mosaic

Drawn by low-skilled work and the safety and security of rural life, families from Latin America and Southeast Asia have migrated to the American heartland. In this pathbreaking book, J. Celeste Lay examines the effects of political socialization on native White youth growing up in small towns.  Lay studies five Iowa towns to investigate  how the political attitudes and inclinations of native adolescents change as a result of rapid ethnic diversification. Using surveys and interviews, she discovers that native adolescents adapt very well to foreign-born citizens, and that over time, gaps diminish between diverse populations and youth in all-white/Anglo towns in regard to tolerance, political knowledge, efficacy, and school participation. A Midwestern Mosaic looks at the next generation to show how exposure to ethnic and cultural diversity during formative years can shape political behavior and will influence politics in the future.

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Cultivating Democracy: Civic Environments and Political Socialization in America

Authors: James G. Gimpel, J. Celeste Lay and Jason E. Schuknecht

J. Celeste Lay's book: Cultivating Democracy

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Scholars across several social science disciplines have indicated that the behavior described by the term “civic engagement” is girded by a set of attitudes that show knowledge about, and positive evaluations of, government and politics. Drawing on extensive interviews with high school students from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds, Cultivating Democracy examines the sources of those attitudes, including individual characteristics, and the qualities of local environments that shape the experiences of late adolescence.
The authors gathered data on adolescent attitudes by interviewing students in a wide variety of locations, from Baltimore’s inner city and suburbs to the most affluent communities in Montgomery County, Maryland. Focusing initially on attitudes toward ethnic diversity and immigration, the authors expanded their focus to the political socialization of young people, including patriotism and political knowledge and participation.

The authors demonstrate how political socialization is shaped through the social messages presented to citizens by others. According to Gimpel, Lay, and Schuknecht, while formal education as a means of socializing youth is critically important, other useful means for communicating positive socializing messages, through political parties, elections, and the media, have been ignored. They recommend compensatory strategies to promote civic engagement among those who are at risk to be nonparticipants.

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